He said: “If such actions, carried out in violation of the United Nations Charter, are repeated, that would inevitably provoke chaos in international relations.”
The statement from the Kremlin added that “this illegal action seriously damaged the prospects of a political settlement in Syria”.
At least 100 missiles were fired from British Tornado fighter-bombers and US ships in the recent strike on Syria.
It is believed that many children died in the horrific act on April 7.
Bashar al-Assad insisted the recent attack on his country was followed by a campaign of “lies and misinformation” in the UN Security Council.
Both Russia and the Syrian leader deny the use of chemical weapons.
Syria called the devastating strike a “violation of international law” while Mr Putin denounced the act “with the utmost firmness”.
The Russian leader claims the attack is “an act of aggression against a sovereign state which is at the forefront of the fight against terrorism”.
Boris Johnson confirmed that the UK is bracing for a Russian reaction to the attack during his appearance on the Andrew Marr Show yesterday.
He said the threat from Moscow is being taken “very seriously” by the Government.
The presenter asked the UK Foreign Secretary on the possibility of World War 3 with Russia.
He said relations between Britain and Russia are “as bad as it has ever been”.
Mr Johnson replied: “Look, this is not something we relish, any more than we relish carrying out the strikes in Syria.
“No-one wants to do this, but we have to do it to reinforce the point about chemical weapons.
“I went to Moscow in December. We have held out the hand of engagement.”
The Foreign Secretary added the UK wants to “engage” with Mr Putin.
He went on: “We want to engage with Russia, but I’m afraid the Russians give us every possible signal and evidence that we have to beware of them.”