The vessel was on its way to the Russian naval base at Tartus on the north Syrian coast.
Before the strike on Saturday there were reports of a military build-up around Syria by US, French and UK forces.
The movement of the Russian vessels come after a statement by Russian Ambassador Anatoly Antonov: “A pre-designed scenario is being implemented.
“Again, we are being threatened. We warned that such actions will not be left without consequences.
“Insulting the President of Russia is unacceptable and inadmissible.
“The US – the possessor of the biggest arsenal of chemical weapons – has no moral right to blame her countries.”
The Alligator-landing ship was seen with tanks, trucks, ambulances and an IED radar.
Images of the ships were posted on social media by Bosphorus-based naval observer Yörük Işık.
Russia warned before the airstrike last Saturday that it would respond and some people are fearing a confrontation between Nato and Russia.
The US-led airstrike was prompted by reports of a chemical attack in Douma, Eastern Ghouta, which has been blamed on the Assad regime.
Theresa May bypassed Parliament for the military action, unlike her predecessor David Cameron who lost a Parliamentary vote for launching a military intervention against President Bashar Al-Assad in 2013.
Labour Leader Jeremy Corbyn warned that the airstrikes could be the beginning of a wider military action against Syria.
He said: “It is either purely symbolic – a demolition of empty buildings which he claims has already been shown to be entirely ineffective as a deterrent”.
“Or it was the precursor to wider military action. That would risk a reckless escalation of the war and death toll, and the danger of direct confrontation between the US and Russia.
“Neither possibility offers an end to the war and suffering, or any prospect of saving lives – rather the opposite.”
Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson also warned the UK’s involvement in the strikes could trigger Russia to launch new cyber attacks against UK institutions and organisations.
Mr Johnson said: “You have to take every possible precaution, and when you look at what Russia has done, not just in this country, in Salisbury, attacks on TV stations, on the democratic processes, on critical national infrastructure – of course we have to be very, very cautious indeed.”