The crash, which took place just after 6am local time (5am GMT), left 44 people injured.
The train, which was carrying about 150 passengers, derailed between the towns of Terrassa and Manresa as it travelled to Barcelona.
Two of the train’s carriages came off the tracks in the horror crash which was caused by a landslide.
Rescue workers raced to the scene to free passengers on board the train following the incident.
14 fire crews and 11 ambulances attended the scene with police and Civil Protection workers.
Pictures and videos show the wreckage of the train, with carriages sitting at an angle on the tracks as passengers were evacuated.
A Renfe spokesperson said: “The train service has been suspended between Terrassa and Manresa because of a landslide which has caused a train to derail.”
The last few days have seen heavy rain in the north of Spain triggering flooding and landslides.
Commuters were urged to avoid the area and find alternative routes.
In an earlier update, Civil Protection spokesman Montse Font said: “I can confirm that one person has died and that 32 people are currently being evaluated to determine their situation.
“Six of these people have suffered light injuries but the remainder are still being evaluated.
“Five of those six have already been taken to hospitals near the scene of the accident.
“The person who has died was a passenger.”
A Civil Protection spokesman said on Twitter: “One person and dead and six light injuries (one more than in the previous news alert).
“There were approximately 150 people on board the train.”
Additional reporting by Natalia Penza.